David Pingree’s study of the the Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja

In order to follow along with the comparison easily, on the next page I have designated a color to each broad culture/tradition seen in Pingree’s work and given  abbreviations for individual texts within that culture which are referenced in the commentaries. When no specific text is referenced the culture is used instead.  This allows for seeing the extant of each concept in each tradition readily, though the main focus is on Greek-Indian parallels by and large.  One may want to print the next page as a reference when/if looking at deeper comparison of specific texts referenced.

I have tried to be complete as possible, though a few minor texts/details may have escaped due to unfamiliarity with some of the texts or the sheer volume and occasionally confusing nature of the references, though the listing is by and large accurate. Page numbers are listed for each entry if one wishes to see the exact comparison in Pingree’s original work, which I have summarized here. Please note that Pingree makes many extrapolations and often unfounded conclusions based on some of this literature which has been marked on occasion and his understanding of astrological principles should be approached with great circumspect.

Overall, from this first chapter alone, which compromises roughly 25% of his commentary over the entire text, we see that the vast majority of entries have extensive grounding in the Indian tradition yet more often than not are either non-existent, scant, or of quite varied usage within the Greek tradition. Pingree’s central claim that this knowledge was copied from the Greek works is impossible to conclude given even a cursory glance over this comparison. Given the evidence, some logical conclusions might be that a) this knowledge was shared amongst all ancient cultures, b) the Indians (or the Vedic tradition) developed this knowledge far greater than other cultures and c) the Indians have preserved this knowledge better than other cultures from this epoch or d) India is indeed the origin of much of the ancient astrological lore from which cultures such as the Greeks took pieces of over time including those from other sources.  -Frank Vasquez

TEXT REFERENCED BY PINGREE  [need to color code for full use]

Indian (IN):

Sphujidhvaja (SP)

Satya (SY)

Varāhamihira (VH)

Guaṇākara (GK)

Vaidyanātha (VY)

Pṛthuyaśas (PY)


Parāśara (PA)

Bādarāyana (BD)

Horāsāra (HS)

Mantreśvara (MT)

Kalyāṇavarman (KV)

Mīnarāja (MR)


Bhāskara (BK)

Śrutakīrti (SK)

Visnuśarman (VS)

Achmat (AT)

Garga (GA)

Punjarāja (PR)

Utpala (UP)

Vasiṣṭha (VT)

Gaṇapati (GP)

Kāśīnatha (KN)

Rāma (RM)

Śrīpatī –(SP)

Keśava (KS)

Gārgi (GG)

Divākara (DK)

Devakīrti (DT)

Śivarāja (SR)

Kṛsṇa (KS)

Bhāradvāja (BV)

śivarAnonymous –(AY)


Greek/Hellenistic (GK):


Firmicus Maternus (FM)

Firmicus (FC)

Manilius (MS)

Valens (VL)

Protagoes of Nicea (PN)

Dorotheus (DT)

Ptolemy (PT)

Hephaestio (HP)

Porphyrius (PP)

Teucer (TC)

Rhetorius (RT)

Antiochus (AT)

Sextus Emperius (SE)

Paulus Alexandrinus (PA)

Thrasyllus (TL)

George of Antioch (GA)

John Camaterus (JC)

Achmat (AT)

Pseudo-Serapio (PS)

Martianus Capella (MC)

Heliodorus (HD)

P Mich (PM)

Petosiris (PT)

Antigonus (AG)


Manetho (MT)

Julianus Laodicensis (JL

Plotinus (PL)

Palchus (PC)

Theodore Podromus (TP)

Balbillus (BB)

Teucer of Babylon (TB)

Servius (SV)

Isidore of Seville (IS)

Beda (BD)

Anonymous (AY)

Arabic (AB):


Abū Ma’shar (AM)

Al Bīrūnī (AB)

Dorotheus (DT)?

Alī ibn al-Rijāl ( AR)

Umar ibn al-Farrukhān (UF)

Al-Battānī (AT)

Al-Kindī (AK)

Ali ibn abī al-Rijāl (AR)

Al-Qabīsī (AQ)

Anonymous (AY)


Babylonian/Chaldean (BB):

Mulapin (MP)

Teucer (TC)

Egyptian (EG) :

Petosiris (PS)

Nechepso (NC)



Chapter 1

Yavana Jataka Translation Connections from Pingree
1-10 are missing
11. with the twelve zodiacal signs, which are auspicious or inauspicious and which have various forms, colors, and shapes. ACCORDING TO PINGREE partial and early zodiac sign references are seen in BB texts (1124 – 1103 B.C.) with (MP) as first tablet (1200 to 100B.C.), boundary stones of Nebudchadnezzar 1 (1124-1103 BC). SP/Indian zodiac is largely in line with GK sources though with suggestions of EG connection ( See Egyptian Astronomical Texts by R.A. Parker). By 538-331 BC all zodiacs considered in Mesopotamia represent same as in Greek tradition. Earliest reference to 12 equal arc does not antedate 500 BC from available *written* sources. Pingree claims Islam took their zodiac from Greeks and not India with no substantiation.
12. They say that this (zodiac), in which arise the seven planets, rises in a clockwise direction, and moves in strict accord with the (proper) order (of the signs) up to mid-heaven; the visible half continues on to the western (horizon).
13. . . . (their) distinctions are established . . Below are a couple specifics listed by Pingree in random order within his commentary, though the Zodiac seems to have seen its place in all ancient cultures to various degrees based on above and notes seen in verse 27 and 28.

Pg.195 - 198

14. The first (sign) is traditionally said to have the shape of a ram; it is called by the ancients the head of Kala. Its places are the paths of goats and sheep, caves, mountains, (hideouts of) thieves, and (places tihere there are) fire, metals, mines, and jewels
15. The second is said to have the shape of a bull; it is the mouth and throat of the Creator. Its places are those of forests, mountains, ridges, elephants, herds of cows, and farmers. MP-Bull of Anu

IN - Pingree dismisses this sign,which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

16. The third is a couple (a woman and a man) holding a lyre and a club (respectively); it is the region of the shoulders and arms of Prajspati. Its places are those of dancers, singers, artisans, and women, and (places for) playing games, sexual intercourse, gambling, and recreation. BB “ Great Twins”

GK- Heracles and Apollo with club and lyre.

EG- Male Shu and female Tefnut with club and lyre

SP-Mithuna, holding club and lyre are taken from Egyptian symbols according to Pingree who gives no evidence for this claim. Pingree dismisses this sign,which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

17. The fourth, which has the form of a crab standing in water and which is the region of the chest, is called Karki (Karkyos). To it belong meadows, wells, and sandy beaches, and its places are the pleasant play-grounds of goddesses
18. The authorities state that the fifth is a lion on a mountain peak; it is the region of the heart of Prajapati. Its places are forests, fortresses, caves, woods, mountains, and the dwelling-places of hunters and kings BB - Lion/Lioness

EG- Mountain peak Leo stands on, though to be source of SP, though Pingree gives no evidence for the claim.

GK- Snake appears below Lions feet only one, Pingree ignores fact that Lions don’t exist in Greece so obviously the entire zodiac could not have originated there

IN - Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

19. A maiden standing in a boat on the waters and holding a torch in her hand is sixth, as those who are clever on the subject of time say; it is the belly of the Creator. Its lands are grassy and (suitable for) women, sexual intercourse, and crafts. MP-The Furrow

EG – Isis holding a torch opn a boat

GK- Carries Isis iconography too, she is on coins of Alexandria

IN-Attributes sailors of Alexendria to Virgo inclusion in their zodiac .SY, VH, GK, VY, PY, have ear of wheat which Pingree claims derives form Greek origin giving no proof. Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

20. (The next) is a man bearing goods on a balance and standing in the market-place; it is the region of the navel, hips, and bladder. Its places are those of customs-duties, money, lyres, coins, cities, roads, caravanseries, and ripened grain. IN - Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)
21. The eighth has the shape of a scorpion in its hole; it is said to be the region of the penis and anus of the Lord. Its places are caves, pits, and holes, poisonous and stony areas, prisons, and (the abodes of) ants, worms, boa-constrictors, and snakes. MP – Scorpion
22. A man carrying a bow, one whose rear half is that of a horse, (is the ninth sign); they say this is the thighs of the Maker of the world. Its places are level land, (places where there are) horses both singly and in herds, alcoholic drinks, weapon-bearers, sacrifices, chariots, and horses. MP - The Archer?

IN - Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

23. The tenth is pointed out as being a sea-monster (makara) whose front is like a deer’s, but whose hind-end is like a fish’s; they say this is the region of the knees of the Creator. Its places are rivers, forests, woods, paths and so forth, marshes, and pits. MP - Goatfish
24. A pot being poured out (carried) on the shoulder of a man-this, the authorities say, is the eleventh (sign); it is the shanks. Its places are tanks, (fields of) poor grain, (haunts of) birds, and (areas suitable for) women, liquor-sellers, and gambling. IN - Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)
25. The last sign is a pair of fish in water; it is called by the best (authorities) the feet of Kaala. Its places are auspicious ones, (where there are) gods and Brähmaës, pilgrimages, rivers, oceans, and clouds. EG - Water where Pisces swim

GK – Only one zodiac source with water/fish

IN -PA joined two fishes head to tail like GK convention, which Pingree claims is Greek origin with no proof, followed only by VY. Pingree dismisses this sign, which is seen on numerous  physical relics, as not bearing zodiacal resemblances without any solid evidence to the contrary (see. P. 197-198 for discussion)

26. Thus has been told the circle of the divisions of the limbs of the Creator who made the circular surface of the earth; there is a mutual connection of the signs, marks, and qualities (indicated by the zodiacal signs) and the (corresponding) parts of the bodies of men. MELOTHESIA:

EG – Pingree attributes melothesia to Egypt origin

-Many variations of cosmic man come up in Babylon, Spain,  Hermetic works, and other places of the ancient world including TC who gave a medically orientated model.

IN -Most Sanskrit works follow variant of cosmic man from lost work of BD. SP is closest to PY and borrowed from HS, which is followed by VH,PA,KV,GK,VY,MT. In GK works parallels DT and HP most.

GK – Cnidian/Hippocratic school of medicine holds melothesia too and in a wide variety of western astrological texts such as FM, MS, VL, AT, SE, DT, RT,PP,et. el ( see p. 200 for all). Greek parallels to above Indian texts is FM which other authors do not differ much in MS, VL, SE, PA.


27. The various kinds of places and people pertaining to (each) sign have been briefly recounted in order by the ancients; these (various kinds) with their fixed natures are to be regarded as having their places and actions in the places and limbs connected with the (various) signs. TOPOTHESIA:

GK – Only known sources is HP , quotes Protagoras of Nicaea and fragment of DT talks of types of signs showing limited connection with this idea which Pingree does not translate or directly correlate to the Indian.

-Many AB topothesiae correlate to SP closely, particularly AB & AM

-IN topothesiae close to SP is MT and VY. Pingree fails to mention other Indian texts that include this and overlooks the almost complete absence in Greek work surrounding this topic.

p.203 - 207

28. For those who are authorities say that this world of the immovable and the movable has its essence in the Sun and the Moon. (In them) are seen its coming into being and its passing away; even in the circle of the constellations does it have its essence in them. Moveable/immoveable in Indian and Greek philosophy. Associating concept with Moon/Sun idea only in Indian philosophy ( Pingree only finds Shiva statement to Parvati in VY  – Pingree may not understand the philosophical concept here).


29. The solar half (of the zodiac) begins with Magha (the first naksatra in Leo); the other half, the lunar, with Sarpa (the last naksatra in Cancer). The Sun gives the (zodiacal) signs to the planets in order, the lunar signs (are assigned) in reverse order. GK - PT, HP, PP

IN -  KV, GK

(appears to have left out some authors here)


30. Others, however, state that every odd sign is solar, every even sign lunar; each solar sign is masculine and hard, each lunar sign feminine and soft. G – PT, PL, AT, TL



31. In the odd signs, the first half is solar, the second lunar, they say; in the even signs, the Moon is lord of the first half, and the Sun of the second. IN – SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT,BK

N/A in Greek texts


32. As the Sun takes Leo because of its qualities and the Moon Cancer, so they give the remaining signs from (their own) lordships to (those of) the planets in direct and reverse order (respectively). GK – All follow this system

IN – All follow this system


33. In order (these planets) are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. . . . Therefore they are said to be each the lord of two houses, one lunar and one solar GK – All follow this system

IN – All follow this system


34. The Horas (horai) are famous . . . . The Drekanas (dekanoi) are renowned for their acquisition of images and forms. More specific notes regarding these given below (39-44)


35. There are portions (bhaagas) (of each sign), they say, belonging to the seven planets, and these (saptamsas) undergo modifications according to the planet. The navamsas, whose forms and actions (are taken into consideration) in genethlialogy, are (also) well known (as being useful) in making predictions, in calculating the periods of life (dashaas), and in determining the length of life More specific notes regarding these given below (39 -44)





36. In (each) sign there are dvadasamsas (dodecamoria) which fill the sign with their own influences. There are subtle modifications in respect to height or depth of action when (their) influences are combined with those of the terms (trimsamsas). More specific notes regarding these given below (39-44)




37. There are sixty solar portions (sauras) in each sign which are similar (to their signs) in what their involvement signifies. In each navamsa of two hundred (minutes) there are seventy-two ciidapadas IN –MR, KV. References in PA, VY, MT are different

GK – Only in MA



38. Eighteen hundred liptakas (lepta) are equal to thirty (degrees) ; in this (matter), the distinctions according to the qualities of each are (now) to be considered. Pingree merely defines these portions yet gives NO Greek reference.


39. The first Hora (in a sign) belongs to the lord of the sign, the second to the lord of the eleventh sign (from it). The three Drekanas in it belong in order to the lord of that sign, to the lord of the twelfth sign, and to the lord of the eleventh sign. IN - Horā seen in VH, VM, GK,AY and others from above verse(31) .

IN-This drekkanna only in VA, GK, AY . Variants of this rule used by SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, BK, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, AT.

GK - Had alternative drekāna rules in TC, RT, PP, FM, PA, GA, AY.

No mention of Horā given for Greek texts.


40. They say that the saptamsas belong to the lords of the signs (in order) beginning with the lord of the sign itself and excluding repetitions; similarly –the dvadasamshas are said to belong to the lords of the signs beginning with I (the lord of) the sign itself. D7:

IN- This rule not followed by later Indian’s who used variants such as MR, SY, PA, KV,GK, VY, MT.

N/A in Greek texts.



IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT.

GK – Pingree gives no reference but Greek D12 discussed by Housman in an erroneous fashion according to Pingree.

BB – Pingree considers Babylon as origin according to Neugebauer and Sachs


41. The first navamshas in (the signs) beginning with the first (Aries) are said to belong (in order) to the lords of Aries, Capricorn, Libra, and Cancer; if one counts (in groups of three) the signs beginning with (the four signs specified above, then their first) navamshas belong (in order) to the lords of (these) four signs. IN – SP,MR, VH, KV, AY, BK, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT. (forgets PA and possibly others).


N/A or known to west in antiquity    


42. In the odd signs, five degrees (constitute the term) of Mars, five (that) of Saturn, eight (that) of Jupiter, seven (that) of Mercury, and five (that) of Venus; in the even signs, their order is reversed IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, BK, GK, SK, VS, VM, PP, VY, MT (all Indian astrologers follow this form).

GK – Quoted from various sources in VL, PT, HP, TC FM, PA AY, AM, GA show 5 methods of arranging these terms, but none related to SP and each with some variance.

*extensive comparisons of types given and Pingree concludes that no parallels for this division found in Western antiquity but miraculously assumes it derives from Egypto-Greek source.


43. The sauras, cudapadas, and liptikas are to be distributed through another zodiacal circle; each planet’s portion is said to be endowed with the nature of another planet according to the sign in which it is. No Commentary
44. They call (a sign) a “collection” (rasi) in order to distinguish the activi-ties of these corresponding (parts) ; this is immeasurable like the waters of the sea because of doubts as to the variety of their mutual interrelationships No Commentary
45. The (twelve) signs beginning with Aries are of three sorts, called movable, immovable, and two natured, with four (in each group) ; at every fourth (sign) is interposed a dividing line. They are influential (respectively) at the beginning, the middle, and the end of one’s life. IN –All follow this system

GK – All follow this system




46. Taurus and Gemini are town signs; Capricorn, Scorpio, and Leo are forest signs; Pisces, that which travels on water (Cancer), and that which lives in the sea (Capricorn) are marsh signs. IN – Seen across all texts with variants which Pingree discusses.

GK – Many variants here, See Darmstadt for more.



47. The native is born with his nature affected by the changes or constancies of these signs with their natures, forms, and characteristics; if (the sign’s) navamsa is in the path of a planet, then the natives feel the effect of that. See verse 46.
48. The ascendent, which is the first sign, they call hora (horai), the fourth from it hipaka; one also finds it called rasatala (hell), the place of water, the place of the house, and the place of increase. Pingree only focuses on the term Horā seen in Greek texts without reference to these other terms. In this and verses 48-53 Pingree is most concerned with Greek nomenclature, ignoring many verses without consideration.


49. The seventh place from the ascendent, the descendent, is called jamitra (diametros) in the language of the Greeks; the tenth from the ascendent, the mid-heaven, they say, is the mesurana (mesouranma). -No sources mentioned other than Greek origin



50. Those who are experts in horoscopy call these (four signs) the caturlagna (“four-fold ascendent”) or the lagnacatustaya (“square of the ascendent”). One finds that the place of the Moon and its square are called menyaiva among the Greeks No Commentary
51. The fourth (place) from the first they call the quartile, the eighth death; one finds that the fifth is the simple trine (trikona), the ninth the trine of the trine Gives reference to Greek terms and texts without consideration of Indian texts


52. They say that the sixth, which gives evil, is the satkona (“sextile”), the third the dushcikya; they call the eleventh the auspicious in every way, the twelfth the place of motion. No commentary
53. They say that a caturvilagna-sign (“cardine”) is a kendra (kentron), the next group panaphara (epanaphora), and the third apoklima (apoklima) this is the three-fold designation of the ascendent (and so forth). IN - MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, and others.

GK – Variants from HP,RT, PS, PA, PP, AT, MN, MS discussed.

EG - Ideas discussed


54. Know that the ascendent, (the second, and the twelfth) (are significant) with respect to property, body, thoughts, and so forth; the fourth, (the third, and the fifth) indicate things relating to the parents and children; and the descendent, (the sixth, and the eighth) indicate things relating to the wife and to coming and going, and (are significant) with respect to injuries such as illnesses No Greek sources mentioned  but says see 70-72.


55. Know that the mid-heaven, (the ninth, and the eleventh) indicate things relating to sovereignty and various successes, and (are significant) with respect to the treasury and the army. Know that a cardine is made auspicious by benefit planets, even if they are weak, and inauspicious by malefic planets. No Greek sources mentioned  but says to see 70-72.


56. So in these (cardines) is bound up the mundane creation, both good and bad, with all its results; and so also in them (is bound up) the birth (of individuals). No commentary
57. They say that the third, sixth, tenth, and eleventh signs from the ascendent or from the Moon are upacaya (“increasing”), the rest apacaya (“decreasing”). IN – GA, SY, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT.

N/A in Greek sources.


58. One finds that Aries, Taurus, Cancer, Libra, Pisces, Virgo, and Capricorn are the signs of exaltation of the Sun, the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus, Mercury, and Mars in that order . . . IN – Exaltations same in  SP, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT though MR is different.

GK – Much more variance across a variety of texts seen in FM, GA, DT, TC, VL, JC PP, MC.


59. (The exaltation) of the Sun is in the tenth degree, of the Moon in the third, and of Jupiter in the fifth; one finds (that) of Saturn in the twentieth, of Venus in the twenty-seventh, and of Mercury in the fifteenth See 58.
60. The entrance of Mars (into its exaltation) takes place in the twenty-eighth degree in the sign of its exaltation. They say that the sign opposite the exaltation and the degree having the same number (in that sign as the exaltation has in its sign) is the dejection. See 58.
61. They say that the thirty degrees in (each of) the four cardines from the ascendent are called the spikes. In every sign the navamsha belonging to that sign is named by the Greeks the vargottama (“highest in rank”). IN – Mentioned by most all SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, AY, GK, VY, MT.

N/A in Greek sources.  Greek here refers to Yavaneśvara as it does elsewhere.


62. The mulatrikonas (“base-triplicities”) of Mars, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn are, in order, Aries, Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Sagittarius, and Aquarius IN – MR, VH, KV, GK, PA VS,UP, PP, VY, MT, PR.

GK – N/A in Greek sources though DT/HP have slightly similar idea.


63. The human signs together with Leo and Scorpio are said by the Greeks to rise head-first; Pisces rises both ways; and the rest always rise backwards IN – GA, SP, MR, KV, VM, GK, VT, PP, VY, PR, PA,MT, some have slight variations.

GK-Not used in Greek system, Pingree only gives MS as reference who uses literal positions of constellations, ignorantly assuming an “error” in Indian system

p.222 -223

64. Excepting the second, sixth, eleventh, and twelfth signs from that in which it is, a planet always aspects the rest; their aspect is good when it is in good signs IN – MR, VH, KV, GK, PP, VY, PA, VS generally follow SP with PA having some additional details.

GK – AT, PP, FM, PA, RT, HP, PT, HD, and others recognize variety of aspects though with some difference from the Indian system.


65. The influence of the aspect is complete in opposition, less by a fourth in the two “squares” (the fourth and eighth places), a half in the two trines, and a fourth in the third and tenth signs See 64.
66. With the revolution of the three (signs in a triplicity), the groups (of signs) beginning with the first (triplicity) are said to be in the directions beginning with East in order; in these the lords of the directions are the Sun and Venus, Mars, the Moon and Saturn, and Jupiter and Mercury. IN – SP, MR,VH, PA, KV, GK, PP, VY, MT, GN, KN,VT,SY, VM,RM and  quoted in others.

GK – FM, AT, PA, TP, GA, TC, VL, AY, RH, JC, PT, et el.

*Pingree goes into extensive comparison between the two and there is greater variation in the Greek texts than Indian systems, however he may not be clear on what is being presented


67. When the signs are without planets, one tells from their power the arrangement of the door and the directions with respect to things which are lost, have been put down, or have disappeared, and with-respect to actions, childbirth, sleeping, or sexual intercourse. See 66.
68. The measure of the rising-times of the first and last signs is demonstrated with certainty to be two muhurtas each; know that the measure of the rising-times (of the rest of the signs) in the two halves of the zodiac, taken (respectively) in direct and reverse order, is (two muhurtas) with a fifth (of that measure) added (successively to each). IN – SP, SY, VH, GK, VY.

*Pingree attempts to reinterpret this verse and correlate it with Babylon and Greek texts sources, says to see other works for specifics.


69. Knowing that the signs are thus measured as being short, medium, or long, they consider the lengths of journeys as being similar to the divisions of the zodiac (and the limbs of the zodiacal man). No Greek sources mentioned , says to see 68.
70. One finds that the ascendant or the sign occupied by the Moon is the body, the second place the family; the third they say is the brother, and the fourth relations. IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT and other texts are largely in line with these definitions.

*Pingree claims these are an “eclectic” version of the Greek but gives no texts and says to see F. Cumonts work for more.


71. The fifth place is called sons, the sixth they name the place of enemies; the seventh is the wife, and wise men say that the eighth is the place of death. No Greek sources mentioned  but says to see 70.
72. One establishes the ninth as the place of righteousness, and they say the tenth is work; the eleventh is the gaining of wealth, the twelfth its loss. No Greek sources mentioned but says to see 70.
73. Whatever significances there are in any signs which are in the places beginning with the ascendent in order, these (significances), because of the positional, temporal, or other strengths of the signs, take on the natures of the significances in the places. No Commentary
74. When the benefit planets have entered into (the places) which are called “body” and so forth, they cause these (aspects of life associated with the places) to flourish; but when the malefic planets are there or (the benefits) oppressed in bad places, they harm them No Commentary
75. Taking into consideration the good fortunes or bad fortunes of their places, which involve such things as the situations of the lords of the places and of the places themselves, the natures of the 5 signs, and their powerful, medium, or weak aspects, one arrives at the death of men (after tracing out the rest of their lives). No Commentary
76. A planet in its sign of exaltation gives a four-fold result; one in its mulatrikona half of that; one in its own house a full result; one in the house of a friend a half; one in the house of an enemy a third; and one in its dejection a fourth. IN – SP, VH, VY,GK, KV, PP, PA,MT, KV,VS,KS



*variations between above texts and cultures discussed. Mainly discusses Arab sources, western/Greek sources only partially mention these placements.

p.229 -230

77. Planets in their enemies’ houses, in the signs of their dejections, overcome (in planetary conflicts), on bad “paths”, or entering into the Sun destroy the good results and increase the bad ones IN – SP, VH, KV, GV


N/A in Greek sources   


78. The semicircle from the ascendent (through the sixth place) which is to come (above the horizon), they say, is strong, that which has risen (above the horizon) is weak. The cardines are the strongest of these (places), and they state that among them the strength of the ascendent is foremost No Commentary
79. The human signs are best in the ascendent, the quadruped signs in the mid-heaven; the water signs are strong in the hypogee, the insect sign in the descendent, and the signs of two forms in the mid-heaven. IN – SP, MR, GG, VA, VS, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY. A math formula for this seen in PA, SP, DK.

N/A in Greek sources


80. The human signs are strong at the beginning of the day, the quadruped and the insect signs at mid-day, Leo at the end of the day, and the water signs at night; all the signs are said to be strong in the cardines. IN – SP,MR,VH, VS, GK, VM, VY, KV,DT (variations seen)

N/A in Greek sources



81. The first four signs, Sagittarius, and Capricorn are strong at night, but the experts say that the second group of four signs together with Aquarius and Pisces are diurnal. IN – SP, MR, VH, PA, KV, VY, PP, VY, PR agree. Variation seen in AY, MV.

GK – some variations seen in MS, HP, AY


82. Those signs-ascendent and so on-are strong which are joined with their lords, the planets whose exaltations they are, ,Jupiter, or Mercury, or which are aspected by these (planets), if they are not aspected by other planets which are in the second or eleventh place IN – SP,SY, KV, MR, VH, PA, SP, VS, GK, VY, MT (variation seen)

GK – only first part (82?) in TL, PT, HP, VL, AT, PP, PA, RT, SE,FC


83. Saturn, Jupiter, and the Sun are strong in the day-time, Mars, Venus, and the Moon at night; Mercury is strong either by day or at night. The benefits are strong in the bright paksa (from new moon to full moon), the others in the dark (from full moon to new). See 82 (reference is confusing here).

This section N/A in Greek texts.

84. Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, and Venus are strong to the North (of the equator), Saturn and the Moon to the South, and Mercury in both. All the planets are strong in their own vargas, when they have overcome their enemies, and when they are brilliant. IN – SP,KV,SP,GK, PP, VY, MT, PA, KV, SY, MR, VH, VM, VY, MT ( some variations on this and parts of sloka seen in each text)

N/A in Greek sources


85. They are strong in retrogression, when leaving the Sun, and when they have just risen; the masculine planets are strong at the beginnings of the places, the feminine at the end, and the neuter in the middle. Retrogression:


GK – PS,DT, VL, PP, PM, GA (differing views here)


Leaving sun:



Just Risen:



Masculine, neuter, etc:


N/A in Greek sources

*Pingree may have missed similar concepts in other texts here that are given in a different format (i.e. PA has teachings on the last distinction in shad bala calculations though is not listed here)


P.234 -235

86. The Moon is strong in the first part of the night, Venus at midnight, and Mars at the end of the night; Mercury is strong in the morning, the Sun at mid-day, Saturn at the end of the day, and Jupiter always. IN – SP, PA, SP, VS, KS, GK, SY, KV, SY, MR, VH, PP, VY, MT ( some variations)

N/A in Greek sources


87. They have their greatest strength in their exaltations, are of medium strength in their mulatrikonas and houses, and have their least strength when aspected by benefit planets or when in their friends’ houses IN – SP, KV, SY, MR, VH, VS, GK, VM, PP, VY ( some variations)

N/A in Greek sources though Pingree lists something similar in PS, PT, PP, RT, GA, AY, HP, AT without translating it.


88. Jupiter and Mercury are strong in the ascendent, the Sun and Mars in mid-heaven, Saturn in the descendent, and Venus and the Moon in the hypogee. IN – SP, MR, VH, VS, PA, KV, SP, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT

*Pingee confuses digbala here with lords of directions in 66-67 and only sees possible Greek parallels discussed in 1,85 though no sources given otherwise.


89. If a month is taken to begin with the first day of the bright paksha, in the first ten tithis the Moon is of medium strength, in the second it is at its greatest strength, and in the third at its least; but it is always strong if it is aspected by benefit planets IN –SP, KV, MR?, PP

N/A in Greek sources


90. The strength of a planet is established in three ways in determining about all actions-according to time, according to position, and according to strong aspects No Commentary
91. One finds strength in the ascendent when it is conjoined with or aspected by its own lord or by the lord of the exaltation which is in it, or when it is conjoined with Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury; but the ascendent has little strength in the two twilights Suggests to compare with 1,82
92. This is said to be the method of determining the strength or weakness of the signs and planets according to the teaching of the Greeks; they say that, of the complete set of influences in horoscopy, there is an enormous number . . . . No Commentary
93. Through the influence of the places and of the planets in them, which have’ the greatest, medium, the least, or no strength at the times of the natives’ births, men are born with the greatest, medium, or least strength. No Commentary
94. The planets in the cardines exercise their influence in the first part of life, those in the succedent places in middle age, and those in the cadent places (apoklimas) in old age; (in each group) the order of precedence is determined according to their strengths. IN – SY, KV, MR, VH, SP, GK, PP

N/A in Greek sources, though Pingree suggest to see chapters 37-41 and 39.6-7 for commentary on Greek methods of timing.


95. At the commencement of life, one says that these are the three (groups) . . . in use; by means of these three, according to their strengths at the time of the child’s birth, one finds his condition (in each period of his life). IN – VH, KV, GK, PP has associated verses.

No Greek sources mentioned, but suggest to see 1.48-53 for Greek thoughts on this



96. If the lord of the birth, the lord of the ascendent, or Jupiter is strong and in the ascendent, it exercises its influence at the time (of one) of (the native’s) four ages depending upon which of the four cardines it is in. IN – VH, KV, GK, PP have similar.

No Greek sources mentioned but suggests to see 1.48-53 commentary for Greek antecedents.



97. If the lord of the birth or a planet possessing its qualities and strength is in its exaltation, or in a cardine in its own varga, or in its own house not aspected by malefic planets, then it exercises its influence at the time of birth. IN – PP, PR

GK – Gives variations seen in FC, PT, VL, AG/HP, PP, HP, PTRT, AT, DT, MT


98. Thus they say that, of the many combinations, these are the yogas which produce complete happiness; whereas, if the planets were in their dejections or their enemies’ houses, it would produce complete misery IN – See KV 40.6-7 and Yavanajātaka 39.8-9

N/A in Greek sources


99. Planets in signs which rise head-first are strong at the beginnings of their periods; those in signs which rise backwards at the ends; and those in signs which rise both ways exercise their influence in the middles IN – UT,GG, VH, KV, GK

N/A in Greek sources



100. Those planets which are at the beginning, end, or middle of the ascendant or the sign occupied by the Moon at birth are effective with their good or bad influences at the beginning, end, or middle of their periods respectively. No references given




101. Those navamshas which are at the boundaries of the places at birth are considered to be in them (completely); but, except for the vargottamamshas, all those at the ascendent are considered to be malefic. IN – Defined in 1.61. For ascendant effects see VH.

N/A in Greek sources



102. The benefit planets, when they are in the upacaya places from the ascendent, cause the births of wealthy people; when they are (in the upacaya places) from the Moon, they cause the births of men with many good qualities. The malefic planets, however, (in similar situations cause the births) of lepers, paupers, and men who are lazy. IN – defined in 1.57. See VH, KV,GK for more.

N/A in Greek sources





103. The Moon in the cardines of the Sun produces fools, paupers, and those who are mischievous and without character; in the next (four signs) it causes the birth of wealthy men; and in the cadent signs of those who are born at the heads of their families. IN – Alternate approach in VH, PA, KV, GK, PP

N/A in Greek sources



104. If (two) men are born with the ascendent or a cardine of the one in the other’s place, they are mutually helpful-or if they are born under signs (belonging to planets which are) mutually friendly. Relates this verse to 105-108


105. The planets which are in the second, fourth, fifth, ninth, and twelfth places from another planet’s mulatrikona are its temporary friends, as is the weak planet in its exaltation IN – SY, MR, VH, VS, SR, PA, KV, GK, VM, PP, VY, MT, PR, KS

N/A in Greek sources

p.238 -240

106. The planets which are in the first, third, sixth, seventh, eighth, tenth, and eleventh places are the temporary enemies. I shall call these the “base” (maula) friends and enemies. N/A in Greek sources

See 105

107. Jupiter is the friend of the Sun, but the rest are its enemies; all except Mars are the friends of Jupiter; all except the Sun are the friends of Mercury; and all except the Sun and the Moon are the friends of Venus IN – notes VH, GK though see 103-104 for more commentary.

N/A in Greek sources



108. One finds that Venus and Mercury are the friends of Mars, Jupiter and Mercury of the Moon, and all except Mars, the Sun, and the Moon of Saturn; know that the rest are enemies, and that the same relationships hold 4 among the men (born under the influence of the several planets). N/A in Greek sources

See 107

109. Saturn, Mars, and the Sun are always malefic, Jupiter, Venus, and the Moon benefit. Mercury is benefit when it is not mixed with the other (planets) or their vargas; (when it is so mixed), it takes on a nature similar to theirs IN – SY, MR, VH, VS, KV, GK, MT, VT, VY,VM, PP,BV some variation around Me/Mo/Nodes

GK – Wide range of opinions seen in PT,HP, JL, SE, PA, RT,DT,PL, PC, TP, BB

p.240 -242

110. The malefic planets are hot, the benefit cold, and Mercury has a mixed nature; because of these is the result of time in the world the same with regard to things relating to generation and to decay. No Commentary
111. There are said to be five great elements (mahabhutani)-earth, fire, water, air, and wind; their connections, from the body of the (cosmic) man (the zodiac), are Mercury, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn. IN – VH, PA, KV, GK, PP, VY, MT, VS

*Elements/Planets not seen in Greek texts though Pingree erroneously reconstructs a table based around mention of qualities in these sources (i.e. Saturn=dry/cold=earth). Since elements are the basis of Vedic science, this is a key sloka refuting Pingree’s thesis as well as understanding of any of this.


112. All of the principles of existence (sattvani) are life, love, knowledge, speech, truthfulness, ignorance, and mind; they pervade respectively the Sun, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, Saturn, and the Moon. IN – VH, PA, GK, AY, VY, PP, MT, and others.

GK- TB, VL, AT, PP, TP, SV, IS, BD, and possibly others.

*PIngree calls these “psychological factors” (though they seem like basic karakas) and says to see in conjunction with 1.122. His referenced texts above appear to loosely fit with this list, though not necessarily.


113. Bile is from Mars, bile and phlegm from the Sun, phlegm and wind from Jupiter and the Moon, phlegm from Venus, wind from Saturn, and wind mixed with the quality of its position from Mercury IN – SY,VH, VS, PA, KV, GK, AY, PP, MT




114. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are of excellence (sattva), Venus and the Moon of passion (rajas), and Saturn of ignorance (tamas); Mercury accepts the other characteristics depending on which planet it is in conjunction with. IN – Different system seen in SY, MR, VH, PA, KV, GK, AY, VY, MT, PP

N/A in Greek sources

*Pingree explains the system here is in connection with colors/sexes of planets versus later authors who used character of planets

p.244 - 246

115. Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun are masculine, Venus and the Moon femi-nine; Saturn and Mercury are neuter, their sex depending on their situations. IN – MR, VH, PA, KV, VS, SP, GK, VM, AY, VY,PP largely in congruence

GK – PT, HP, RT,PP with some variation.


116. One finds that the Sun and the Moon are king, Mars a general, Mercury a prince, Jupiter and Venus advisors, and Saturn a slave. These categories apply on earth (among those under the influence of the several planets). IN – VH, PA, KV, GK, VY

GK – SE, TC, VL, RT,GA,JL (some variation)


*Pingree says to compare to 60,32-33.


117. Jupiter is the caste-lord of Brahmanas, and so is Venus; Mars and the Sun are the caste-lords of Kshatriyas; Mercury and the Moon of Vaishyas; and Saturn of Sudras. IN-MR, PA, KS, SY, VH, KV, SP, GK, VM, VY, MT, PP

N/A in Greek Sources. Pingree tries to claim these are based off the royal court which he claims is of Greek origin without substantiation.


118. When the planets are victorious, so are their castes; but when they are shattered, their castes also are shattered and their qualities are co-mingled . . . . N/A in Greek Sources

See 117.

119. The associations, acquisitions, misfortunes, and possessions (of the natives) depend upon the planets’ situations; by their natures they cause (the native) to be accompanied by good friends, wealth, sons, and wives. No Commentary                                                                            
120. Objects are green, coppery, red, white, black, silvery, or yellow; such are the colors (respectively) of Mercury, the Sun, Mars, Venus, Saturn, the Moon, and Jupiter IN – MR, VH, VS, KV, GK, VY in concordance

GK – Many variations on this subject seen in VL, PP, RT, AT, GA,TC, and others

*Some discussion of origin of scheme from Babylonia hard to prove

p.248 -250

121. Father, mother, brother, wife, relative, son, and slave of the natives; such are the natures (respectively) of the Sun, the Moon, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Mercury, and Saturn. IN – KV, VH, VY, GK, MT, MT, AY, VS


*minor variations in some of the above

p.250 -251

122. The strength, old age, activity, happiness, sexual intercourse, intelligence, and status of men are from these planets through unalterable laws: Mars, Saturn, the Sun, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. Says to see  1,112.
123. The Sun is a handsome, square-limbed man, whose sparse hair is soft and curly and has loose ends. His eyes are sweet and wide in the description of Yavanesvara; his body gleams like molten gold. For verses 123-136 Pingree claims to have “proven” the “true intent” of these verses (despite his inability to translate simple concepts as pointed out above) and how they supposedly derived from Greek sources in his paper “ Representation of the Planets in Indian Astrology”. Instead Pingree closes out Chapter 1 by discussing only physiology, once again showing large variation within the Greek texts, a standard tradition across the Indian texts, and illogically claims it must have derived from a Greek source without any solid arguments to this fact.

p.251 -252

124. It is his nature to be inscrutable and firm; he is a fierce, steadfast hero who is hard to assail, a powerful leader whose body-hair is yellow like purified gold and whose deeds are swift and cruel. His essence is of bone. See 123.
125. The Moon is white, shining, and handsome, with an appearance like that of smooth waters. His hair is fine and curly, his eyes wide, and his body beautiful in its symmetry; he is a youthful lover with a charming and spotless form. See 123.
126. He is wise, patient, and fond of courtesy, controlling himself in accordance with the laws of Manu. Speaking kindly and clothed in spotless garments, the playful Moon with pleasing eyes laughs softly and sweetly. His nature is of (the woman’s) blood in sexual intercourse. See 123.
127. Venus is graceful, having pleasing eyes and broad face, eyes, cheeks, and chest. He shines like silver, his smooth, fine, black hair hanging down with curly ends. See 123.
128. His thighs, arms, belly, and shoulders are heavy and drooping; his body is made beautiful by bright-colored garments and garlands. He is given over to a love of instrumental music, dancing, singing, beauty, sport, and sexual intercourse. His essence is semen. See 123.
129. Jupiter is yellow like ivory and gold and has a short, broad, fleshy, erect body. He speaks deeply, and his eyes and body-hair are sweet. He is pre-eminent in intelligence, memory, firmness, and resoluteness See 123.
130. He bears authority in decisions relating to the Vedic sciences, sacrifices, sacred learning, politics, law, and the composition of poetry. Clad in white and with his hair tied up and matted, and with upright head, he is hard to assail. His essence is fat See 123.
131. Mercury’s intellect is full and pure, his body dark, his curls (as dark as) duurva-grass, and his eyes handsome. He is pre-eminent in the composition of poetry, in craftsmanship, and in the arts, and is charming because of his gracefulness, jests, and so forth. See 123.
132. He is clothed in green; he is weak, defective( ?), and rotund. His speech is clear and cheerful, his body soft and of medium size. He has an unstable nature, taking on the characters of others and allowing his own to disappear. His essence is of skin. See 123.
133. Mars is a hot and passionate man with flaming curly hair and a terrible red body. The corners of his eyes are bloodshot, and he shines like blazing fire; he is powerful in his vehemence and terrifying like Kumara See 123.
134. He is short and slender, with shining finger-nails and firm limbs. His speech is clear and pure. He is a hero, used to killing, taking, and opposing; clothed in red, he commits acts of violence and strength. His essence is of marrow See 123.
135. Saturn has brown, inscrutable eyes. He is strong, but his limbs are curved by the bending of his head. He is tall and has thick, black, rough, and dreadful hair, and nails and teeth which are discolored and broken See 123.
136. He is mean and very irascible; his actions are evil. Accustomed to hatred, he is a malicious master. In his black garments and looking like collyrium, thin and lazy Saturn has abandoned joy. His essence is of sinew See 123.
137. They say that, if the planets are in the cardines in their own vargas and if they have temporal or other strength, then the natives have situations, castes, shapes, essences, and powers like theirs No Commentary
138. As these planets are strong and occupy their own dvadasamias, navamsas, and houses, they cause similar perfections of creation in the bringing forth of the limbs of men. No Commentary
139. When the planets are not in their own vargas, then the signs and so forth are said to be strong, and it is by means of the natures of the vargas-according to the planets (which rule them)-that one decides upon the changes and complications (which affect the natives). No Commentary



Pingree says to see his paper “ The Indian Iconography of the Decans and Horās” where he claims to have proven that Sphujidhvaja was translating Greek images into Indian Iconography from the unknown Greek text he was copying. Based on the above first chapter alone, it is absurd to conclude he was copying any text and such claims as well as this paper should be examined with circumspect.